Subgenus Borichinda Harbach & Rattanarithikul, 2007

Type species: 

AEdes cavernicola (Rattanarithikul & Harbach, 2007) (in Harbach et al., 2007), original combination: Borichinda cavernicola. (Note: Both Aedes and Borichinda are masculine; hence, the termination of cavernicola is masculine and should not be changed to “-us”).


Subfamily Culicinae, tribe Aedini, genus Aedes. Subgenus Borichinda includes a single species, Ae. cavernicola. Subgenus abbreviation – Bor.


The following salient anatomical differences distinguish subgenus Borichinda from subgenera Ayurakitia and Isoaedes. ADULTS ‒ Compound eyes narrowly separated; scutum with pattern of dark and pale scaling; scutellum with broad scales on midlobe; postspiracular and subspiracular scales present; remigial setae absent; only one foreungues of males toothed (distinction from Isoaedes); apex of claspette of male genitalia expanded with numerous setae. LARVAE ‒ Seta 4-C short, with 7‒11 branches; seta 14-C branched (distinction from Isoaedes); seta 5-P double; seta 5-T large, stellate, multi-branched; seta 1-I‒VII large, stellate, far anterolateral to seta 1; seta 9-II‒VI far anterior to seta 7. PUPAE ‒ Seta 6-III single; seta 6-VII anterior to seta 9; seta 9-IV‒VI anterior to seta 8; apex of paddle slightly concave. See Aedes.

Phylogenetic relationships: 

Based on the inclusion of morphological data for Borichinda in the parsimony analysis of Reinert et al. (2004), the subgenus appears to be more closely related to Isoaedes and Ayurakitia than to other generic-level taxa of tribe Aedini. The subgenus appears to have a closer affinity with Isoaedes, which is reflected in the relationships of Fredwardsius, Isoaedes, Borichinda and a clade of other subgenera, each on a separate branch, recovered in the cladistic analysis of more extensive morphological data by Reinert et al. (2009): Fredwardsius + (Isoaedes + (Borichinda + other subgenera)). Borichinda was recovered as the sister of Isoaedes in the phylogeny of Wilkerson et al. (2015). Borichinda was recovered as the sister of Nyctomyia in the maximum likelihood phylogeny of Soghigian et al. (2017) based on molecular markers.

Bionomics and disease relations: 

Aedes cavernicola is a cave-dwelling species that has only been found and reared from larvae that inhabit a single rimstone pool in Borichinda Cave of Chiangmai Province in northern Thailand. The cave harbours a population of bats that is likely to be the primary source of food for adult females. Nothing else is known about the biology of this species.

Aedes cavernicola is not a medically or economically important species.


Aedes cavernicola is only known from a cave in northern Thailand.

Principal references: 

Harbach et al., 2007 (as genus, taxonomy); Reinert et al., 2009 (as genus, morphology, phylogeny); Rattanarithikul et al., 2010 (as genus, Thailand, keys, bionomics); Wilkerson et al., 2015 (phylogeny, classification); Soghigian et al., 2017 (phylogenetic relationships).


cavernicola (Rattanarithikul & Harbach, 2007) (in Harbach et al., 2007)

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith