Subgenus Zavortinkius Reinert, 1999
Aedes longipalpis (Grünberg, 1905), original combination: Stegomyia longipalpis.
Subfamily Culicinae, tribe Aedini, genus Aedes. Subgenus Zavortinkius includes 11 species. Subgenus abbreviation – Zav.
The following combinations of features distinguish Zavortinkius from other generic-level taxa of tribe Aedini. Characters that diagnose Zavortinkius (as genus) in the phylogenetic analysis of Reinert et al. (2009) are indicated with an asterisk (*). ADULTS – Decumbent scales of vertex and interocular space all broad; ocular line with broad silvery spatulate scales; antennal pedicel without scales; *proboscis shorter than forefemur; acrostichal and dorsocentral setae absent; *scutal scales both narrow and broad; supraalar area, postpronotum and pleural areas of thorax with broad silvery spatulate scales; subspiracular scales absent; *lower proepisternal scales and *upper prealar scales present: scutellar scales all broad; hindungues both toothed in females and males; lateral abdominal setae of males shorter than dorsal width of terga and few in number; *abdominal segment VII of females dorsoventrally flattened. FEMALE GENITALIA – *Sternum VIII with scales, often covering much of surface, *posterior margin with median emargination separating broadly rounded lateral lobes; tergum IX comprised of 2 narrow lateral plates connected by basomesal strip, with apical setae on each side of midline; upper vaginal lip well developed; insula lip-like, with setae; postgenital lobe long, relatively narrow, base bilobed, basomesal apodeme well developed; cercus long, without scales. MALE GENITALIA – Tergum IX comprised of 2 lateral sclerites, each with single posterior row of curved setae; tergum X narrow with a tongue-like median anteriorly directed lobe separating 2 halves of tergum IX; gonocoxite long with basal dorsomesal lobe bearing at least 1 stout seta, ventromesal margin with double row of stout setae; gonostylar claw long, narrow, curved distally, apex blunt; claspette narrow, stem with long flattened filament; aedeagus simple, trough-like. LARVAE – Antenna long, narrow, with few spicules; seta 1-A usually single; setae 4–6-C in triangular formation (but in a diagonal line in Ae. pollinctor); seta 4-C inserted between and mesad of setae 5,6-C (except in Ae. pollinctor); seta 4-C short, branched; setae 5-C single; seta 7-C *single (rarely double), slightly anterolateral to slightly posterolateral to seta 6-C; setae 8–10,13-C branched (10-C rarely single in Ae. geoffroyi); seta 18-C present; seta 19-C and *ventromedian cervical sclerite absent; seta 1-P longer than seta 2-P and 2-P longer than seta 3-P, seta 2-P single; *seta 4-P and *seta 6-T branched; seta 12-I present, seta 12-VII branched; seta 1-VII long; seta 2-VIII branched, longer than seta l-VIII; comb comprised of numerous scales in patch; *siphon without acus; saddle incomplete; ventral brush (seta 4-X) with 5 or 6 pairs of fan-like setae on grid. PUPAE – Seta 7-CT long, with 2–6 stout branches; seta 8-CT long, branched; seta 6-I,II long, seta 6-II longer than seta 7-II; seta 2-II inserted laterad of seta 1-II and mesad of seta 3-II; setae 3-II,III and seta 5-IV–VI stout, longer than following terga; seta 6-VII branched, shorter than seta 9-VII; seta 9-VII,VIII stout, branched (9-VII rarely single in Ae. fulgens), *seta 9-VIII inserted noticeably anterior to corner of segment; seta l-Pa single (very rarely split apically). See Aedes.
Zavortinkius was recovered as sister to subgenus Kenknightia in a clade comprised of subgenera Himalaius + Bruceharrisonius and Vansomerenis + (Zavortinkius + Kenknightia) in the phylogenetic analysis of tribe Aedini conducted by Reinert et al. (2009). It is not surprising that Zavortinkius appears to be related to Vansomerenis as the two subgenera are endemic to the Afrotropical Region. However, relationships of Zavortinkius with other generic-level taxa of tribe Aedini were not resolved in the phylogeny of Wilkerson et al. (2015).
Species of subgenus Zavortinkius prefer forested areas, but females of some species have been captured in plantations, bush and buildings. Adults are principally active during daylight hours, especially in forest canopy, but some species are active to a lesser degree at night. Females are known to feed on humans and monkeys. The immature stages are usually found in tree holes, but they are sometimes found in bamboo, leaf axils, banana fibre and seed pods, and occasionally in rock holes, snail shells and artificial containers such as tyres, tins and gutters.
Aedes fulgens is regarded as a potential vector of Chikungunya virus based on laboratory experiments, and Uganda S virus appears to have been isolated from either Ae. longipalpis or Ae. ingrami.
Afrotropical Region. Species of subgenus Zavortinkius are recorded from the following countries: Angola, Botswana, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Comoros Islands, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Nigeria, Republic of the Congo, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
Reinert, 1999 (new subgenus, taxonomy,); Reinert, 2002 (as subgenus of Ochlerotatus, female genitalia); Reinert et al., 2004, 2006, 2008, 2009 (as genus, morphology, phylogeny); Huang & Rueda, 2015 (Afrotropical Longipalpis Group, pictorial key to adults ‒ six species).