Subgenus Patmarksia Reinert, Harbach & Kitching, 2006
Aedes papuensis (Taylor, 1914), original combination: Leucomyia australiensis variety papuensis.
Subfamily Culicinae, tribe Aedini, genus Aedes. Subgenus Patmarksia includes 13 species. Subgenus abbreviation – Pat.
Species of subgenus Patmarksia are characterised and distinguished from species of other generic-level taxa of Aedini by the following combinations of characters. Characters that diagnose Patmarksia in the phylogenetic analyses of Reinert et al. (2009), based on features observed in Ae. argyronotum and Ae. papuensis, are indicated by an asterisk (*).
ADULTS – Vertex with narrow scales; forked scales on occiput and vertex; eyes contiguous or nearly so above antennal pedicels; maxillary palpus and proboscis dark-scaled, maxillary palpus of males with 5 palpomeres, slightly shorter to slightly longer than proboscis; *scutum with median longitudinal patch of pale scales on anterior 0.55–0.70 of acrostichal and dorsocentral areas, *posterior dorsocentral area without pale stripe, *supraalar area without pale scales; acrostichal setae absent, anterior dorsocentral area normally without setae, posterior dorsocentral area with several setae; scutellum with narrow scales on all lobes; paratergite with broad scales; postpronotum normally with broad scales ventrally and narrow scales dorsally; mesokatepisternum with upper and lower patches of broad scales; costa of wing dark-scaled; hindfemur with dorsoapical patch of pale scales; tibiae dark-scaled; hindtarsomeres 1–4 with broad basal pale bands; both fore- and midungues of males toothed. FEMALE GENITALIA – Tergum VIII with numerous broad scales distally, *setae inserted on posterior ≥ 0.7; sternum VIII longer than wide, with broad scales in lateral patches, posterior margin with median emargination, seta 2-S inserted posterior to seta 1-S; tergum IX comprised of 2 lateral plates, posteromesal margins fused to anterolateral margins of cerci, without setae; lower vaginal sclerite absent; insula lip-like, with setae in lateral patches; cercus usually without scales; 3 spermathecal capsules. MALE GENITALIA – Tergum IX comprised of 2 narrow lateral plates narrowly joined mesally, without setae; gonocoxite without dorsoapical lobe, with small basal lobe bearing setae, mesal surface membranous; gonostylus long and narrow, attached at apex of gonocoxite, gonostylar claw inserted at apex; claspette comprised of rather long slender columnar stem with *striated claspette filament borne at apex; aedeagus simple, tube-like. LARVAE – Antenna with few to numerous spicules; seta 1-A normally branched; seta 4-C branched, inserted slightly posterior and mesal to seta 5-C; setae 5,6,7-C multi-branched, displaced far anteriorly, seta 6-C inserted lateral and slightly anterior to seta 5-C; seta 7-C inserted lateral and posterior to setae 4–6-C (*inserted posterior to seta 5-C); seta 12-C inserted mesal to seta 13-C; seta 19-C absent; setae 1–3-P inserted on common setal support plate; seta 12-I present; *seta 1-II single; seta 7-II short and branched; comb of segment VIII normally with numerous scales in patch (some species with several scales in 1 or 2 irregular rows); siphon with pecten spines evenly spaced, seta 1-S inserted distal to pecten, *seta 6-S noticeably longer than distal diameter of siphon; saddle of segment X incomplete ventrally, *with moderately well-developed spicules on posterior margin; seta 1-X inserted on saddle; ventral brush (seta 4-X) on grid with both transverse and lateral bars. PUPAE – Seta 11-CT normally single; seta 3-I long, stout, single, longer than seta 6-I; seta 6-I single, longer than seta 7-I; seta 2-II inserted lateral to seta 1; seta 3-II,III long, stout, single, 3-II longer than seta 6-II, 3-III longer than seta 5-III; seta 5-IV,V long, stout, longer than following tergum; paddle without hair-like marginal spicules; seta 1-Pa single. See Aedes.
The phylogenetic relationships of subgenus Patmarksia are uncertain. The known species resemble adults of the Scutellaris Group of subgenus Stegomyia, and were previously recognised, along with two unrelated species, as a species group (Papuensis Group/Subgroup) of subgenus Finlaya (King & Hoogstraal, 1946; Knight & Marks, 1952; Lee et al., 1982, respectively). In the phylogenetic study of Reinert et al. (2009) based on extensive morphological data, Patmarksia was recovered as the sister of subgenus Georgecraigius in a clade comprised of subgenera Dobrotworskyius + (Patmarksia + Georgecraigius), and this clade was sister to a clade comprised of subgenera Tanakaius + (Hulecoeteomyia + (Gilesius + Collessius)). In the phylogeny recovered in the study of Wilkerson et al. (20115), Patmarksia was the sister of Georgecraigius in a polytomy that also included subgenera Collessius, Gilesius, Hulecoeteomyia and Tanakaius in an unresolved clade, and Dobrotworskyius.
Species of subgenus Patmarksia are apparently confined to forests. The immature stages develop in phytotelm habitats such as fallen leaves, bracts, palm fronds and coconut husks, tree holes, log holes, cut bamboo and cup fungi. They are also found in small puddles, ruts, borrow pits, rock pools in stream beds, crevasses in rocks and artificial containers, e.g. metal cans, drum heads and flower bowls. Adults are rarely encountered and females, with the exception of Ae. palmarum and Ae. papuensis, which have been captured biting during the day in forest, are not known to attack humans.
Species of subgenus Patmarksia are not known or suspected of being of medical and economic importance.
Australasian Region: Australia, Bismarck Archipelago, Moluccas, New Guinea, Solomon Islands. Most species of Patmarksia are only known from New Guinea.
Lee et al., 1982 (papuensis subgroup [excluding alticola (Bonne-Wepster) and toxopeusi (Bonne-Wepster)], keys, taxonomy, bionomics, distribution, literature); Reinert et al., 2006, 2008, 2009 (as genus, morphology, phylogeny); Reinert, 2008 (as genus, female genitalia); Wilkerson et al., 2015 (phylogeny, classification).