Subgenus Lorrainea Belkin, 1962
Aedes dasyorrhus King & Hoogstraal, 1946.
Subfamily Culicinae, tribe Aedini, genus Aedes. Subgenus Lorrainea includes five species. Subgenus abbreviation – Lor.
The following combinations of features distinguish subgenus Lorrainea from other generic-level taxa of Aedini. Characters that diagnose Lorrainea in the phylogenetic analysis of Reinert et al. (2009) are indicated by an asterisk (*).
ADULTS – Vertex with decumbent scales very broad; erect scales restricted to occiput; *eyes apparently contiguous above antennal pedicels; *interocular scales absent; antenna of females longer than proboscis, shorter than proboscis in males; maxillary palpus of females about 0.2 length of proboscis, with 5 palpomeres, palpomere 5 very small and hidden by scales, maxillary palpus of males 0.75 length of proboscis to slightly longer than proboscis, palpomeres 4 and 5 with no more than a few setae; scutal scales all *narrow and *dark; acrostichal setae (including *posterior acrostichals) and dorsocentral setae present; scutellum with broad scales; *paratergal and *subspiracular scales absent; remigium of wing without distinct setae, alula with broad scales; *hindfemur without pale scales at apex; tarsi dark-scaled, ungues of females all simple, larger fore- and midunguis of males simple, smaller of these apparently with small basal tooth; abdominal tergum I and laterotergite almost completely covered with scales. FEMALE GENITALIA – Segment VIII apparently largely retractile, *seta 2-S lateral and more or less level with seta 1-S; *tergum IX without setae; cercus short, broad; cercus/dorsal postgenital lobe index 3.24−4.78; 3 spermathecal capsules. MALE GENITALIA – Tergum IX poorly developed, *without setae; sternum IX with patch of setae; gonocoxite complex, *mesal area of ventral surface with row or patch of lanceolate setae, a conspicuous basal sternal lobe with apical spiniform setae present; *gonostylus attached subapically, *with scales; *gonostylar claw a relatively narrow spiniform with *truncate apex, long, *ratio of length to length of gonostylus ≥ 0.39; *claspette comprised of 2 basal lobes, columnar lobe absent; aedeagus simple, *without teeth; proctiger strongly developed, paraproct *with apical teeth; cercal setae absent. LARVAE – Head with poorly developed collar; antenna short, without spicules, seta 1-A single, inserted beyond mid-length; setae 4,6,7-C inserted cephalad of antennal base, seta 4-C strongly developed, multiple branched, inserted cephalad of seta 6-C; *seta 14-C single; seta 6-I–VI strongly developed, long and usually branched; seta 12-I absent; seta 2-III–VII inserted far mesad of seta 1; comb scales small, fringed, spatulate, in large patch; seta 4-VIII inserted close to seta 3; siphon relatively short, incomplete at base ventrally, acus absent; pecten spines fringed; seta 1-S long, single; *seta 8-S longer than distal width of siphon; saddle incomplete, very small, acus and marginal spicules absent; seta 1-X long; seta 2-X multiple branched; seta 3-X single; ventral brush (seta 4-X) with 5 pairs of setae on poorly developed grid, *seta 4d-X with 5 or more branches (rarely 4-branched), not plumose. PUPAE – Seta 1-CT long; setae 2,3-CT widely separated, 2-CT short, 3-CT long; *seta 5-CT >1.3 length of seta 4-CT; setae 2,3-I approximated; seta l-II near midline, *with 5 or more branches, seta 1-III–VII strongly displaced laterad; seta 2-III–VII inserted distinctly mesad of seta 1 near caudal border; *seta 3-II inserted lateral to seta 2; *seta 3-VI inserted mesal or directly anterior to seta 1; seta 9-VI small, lateral, similar to 9-II–V; external and internal margins of paddle with fringe of long hair-like spicules; *seta 1-Pa 0.40−0.60 length of paddle. See Aedes.
Belkin (1962) noted that Lorrainea shows affinities with Stegomyia but differs markedly in all life stages, with a very differently developed aedeagus in males. In the morphology-based phylogeny of Aedini recovered by Reinert et al. (2009), Lorrainea was placed in a clade comprised of Lorrainea + (((genus Udaya + (subgenus Belkinius + genus Zeugnomyia)) + (genus Eretmapodites + genus Armigeres)), and this clade was sister to another comprised of subgenus Petermattinglyius + (subgenus Alanstonea + subgenus Pseudarmigeres) + genus Heizmannia)). In the phylogeny of Aedini recovered in the study of Wilkerson et al. (2015), Lorrainea was sister to a clade comprised of Cancraedes + (Geoskusea + Levua + Rhinoskusea + Sallumia). In stark contrast, Lorrainea, with species in the Australasian and Oriental Regions, was recovered as sister to the Afrotropical Cornetius in the maximum likelihood phylogeny of Soghigian et al. (2017) based on seven molecular markers.
The immature stages of species of subgenus Lorrainea have been found in phytotelm habitats, such as coconut shells, palm axils and tree holes, and artificial containers. Bohart & Ingram (1946) found abundant larvae of Ae. lamelliferus in a mangrove swamp but few females were biting at mid-day and early evening indicating that either humans are not preferred hosts or that feeding may normally occur at other times of the day or night. Little else is known about the bionomics of Lorrainea species.
Species of subgenus Lorrainea are of no medical or economic importance to humans.
Species of subgenus Larrainea occur in countries from Thailand and the Philippines southward to northern Australia and eastward to the Solomon Islands.
Belkin, 1962 (taxonomy); Lee et al., 1984 (taxonomy); Reinert et al., 2004, 2009 (as genus, morphology, phylogeny); Rattanarithikul et al., 2010 (as genus, Thailand, keys, bionomics); Wilkerson et al., 2015 (phylogeny, classification); Soghigian et al., 2017 (phylogenetic relationships).