Subgenus Hopkinsius Reinert, Harbach & Kitching, 2008
Aedes ingrami Edwards, 1930.
Subfamily Culicinae, tribe Aedini, genus Aedes. Subgenus Hopkinsius includes seven species, five placed in the Hopkinsius Group and two in the Yamada Group. Subgenus abbreviation – Hop.
Characters that diagnose Hopkinsius in the phylogeny of Aedini recovered in the study of Reinert et al. (2009) are indicated by an asterisk (*). ADULTS – Decumbent scales of vertex all broad or with narrow scales along coronal suture; erect forked scales on occiput; eyes more or less contiguous; flagellar whorls of males directed dorsally and ventrally; maxillary palpus dark-scaled, palpus of males with palpomeres 4 and 5 slightly down-turned; proboscis longer than forefemur, dark-scaled; approximately anterior half of scutum pale-scaled or pale scales on anterior promontory, antedorsocentral area, scutal fossa extending over anterior dorsocentral area, stripe on posterior dorsocentral area, entire acrostichal area, antealar and supraalar areas and margins of prescutellar area; anterior dorsocentral setae present or absent, posterior dorsocentral setae present; scutellum with falcate scales on all lobes (Ae. ingrami with broad scales); broad pale scales on paratergite (scales absent in Ae. albocinctus), subspiracular area, upper proepisternum, lower prealar area, upper and lower mesokatepisternal areas and upper mesepimeral area; lower mesepimeral setae absent; costa of wing dark-scaled with *basal pale spot (occasionally absent in Ae. ingrami), remigium with few dorsal setae, upper calypter with numerous setae on margin, alula with narrow scales on posterior margin; ante- and postprocoxal membranes bare; base of hindcoxa below dorsal margin of mesomeron; legs mainly dark-scaled, *hindfemur without apical pale scales, hindtarsomeres 1 and *2 and sometimes 3 with basal pale bands, fore- and midungues of males unequal, larger unguis with 2 teeth, smaller unguis with 1 tooth; hindtarsus with 2 equal, simple ungues; laterotergite of abdominal segment I with broad scales, terga II–VI with basolateral pale patches, Ae. albocinctus and Ae. seoulensis also with narrow basal pale bands (incomplete in Ae. albocinctus). FEMALE GENITALIA – Tergum and sternum VIII wider than long, largely covered with broad scales, posterior margin of tergum broadly rounded, sternum with posterior emargination separating broadly rounded lobes; tergum IX with deep posterior emargination, sternum IX with few posteromesal setae; *postgenital lobe with small posterior emargination; lower vaginal sclerite absent; insula lip-like, with 2 or 3 setae in lateral patches; 3 spermathecal capsules. MALE GENITALIA – Tergum IX with 2 blunt lobes on posterior margin, each lobe bearing few flattened setae; *gonocoxite with small basomesal lobe, with few setae (Hopkinsius Group) or few short and 1 longer stouter seta (Yamada Group), lateral and ventral surfaces with broad scales, mesal margin membranous; gonostylus attached apically, distal part curved mesad, with one gonostylar claw at apex; claspette with narrow columnar stem and long claspette filament with recurved apex; aedeagus tube-like. LARVAE – Antenna slightly curved mesad, *spiculate; seta 1-A single or with few branches; seta 4-C multi-branched, *inserted posterior to seta 6-C; *seta 5-C branched, inserted posteromesal to seta 6-C; *seta 6-C and *seta 7-C 0.41−0.81 length of dorsal apotome; seta 7-C inserted directly lateral to setae 4–6-C; *seta 13-C branched; 2 or 3 of setae 1–3-P normally inserted on setal support plate; comb comprised of few to several scales in 1 row (Hopkinsius Group) or numerous scales in patch (Yamada Group); siphon with attached acus, pecten with numerous evenly spaced spines; seta 1-S multi-branched, inserted distal to pecten; saddle of segment X incomplete ventrally; seta 1-X inserted on saddle; ventral brush (seta 4-X) with several normally 2-branched setae on *grid with transverse bars and 2 precratal setae. PUPAE – Seta 7-CT about 3 times length of seta 6-CT (Hopkinsius Group) or greater than 6 times length of 6-CT (Yamada Group); seta 6-I longer than seta 7-I; seta 2-II inserted lateral to setae 1 and 3; *seta 2-VI mesal or directly anterior to seta 1; seta 5-II inserted lateral to seta 4; seta 5-IV and normally 5-V,VI longer than following tergum; seta 6-VII inserted posteromesal of seta 9-VII; seta 9-VIII inserted on posterolateral corner of segment; paddle without fringe of hair-like spicules. See Aedes.
Hopkinsius was placed as sister to a large clade comprised of subgenus Dahliana in a basal relationship to 10 other generic-level taxa ‒ (Howardina + (Gymnometopa + (Kompia + (Aztecaedes + (Abraedes + Lewnielsenius)))) + (Finlaya + Danielsia) + (Downsiomyia + Haemagogus) ‒ in the phylogeny of Aedini recovered in the study of Reinert et al. (2009). Hopkinsius was recovered as the sister of Aedes crossi (subgenus uncertain) in the phylogenetic analyses of Wilkerson et al. (2015).
The immature stages of Hopkinsius species have been collected from tree holes and bamboo. Nothing is known about the bionomics of the adults.
Species of subgenus Hopkinsius are unlikely to be of medical and economic importance to humans.
Sub-Saharan Africa, China, India, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan.
Reinert et al., 2008, 2009 (as genus, morphology, phylogeny); Reinert, 2009 (as genus, female genitalia); Rattanarithikul et al., 2010 (as genus, Thailand, keys, bionomics); Wilkerson et al., 2015 (phylogeny, classification); Huang & Rueda, 2017 (as Wellmanii and Barnardi Groups of Aedes subgenus Finlaya, Afrotropical Region, key to adults).
Hopkinsius Group (see).
Yamada Group (see).