Subgenus Edwardsaedes Belkin, 1962
Aedes imprimens (Walker, 1860), original combination: Culex imprimens.
Subfamily Culicinae, tribe Aedini, genus Aedes. Subgenus Edwardsaedes includes three species. Subgenus abbreviation – Edw.
The combination of characters that diagnose the Edwardsaedes clade in the phylogenetic study of Reinert et al. (2009) are indicated with an asterisk (*). ADULTS ‒ Eyes narrowly separated; decumbent scales of vertex largely narrow, erect scales numerous, extending to ocular setae; antennal pedicel with few broad scales and fine setae, flagellar whorls of males with dorso-ventrally directed setae; maxillary palpus of females slender, about 0.20‒0.25 length of proboscis, with 5 palpomeres, palpomere 5 small, palpomeres 1 and 2 ankylosed; maxillary palpus of males longer than proboscis, palpomeres 1 and 2 short, palpomeres 3‒5 long, palpomere 5 upturned; scutum and scutellum with narrow falcate scales only, *scales on median and/or posterior area of scutellum; acrostichal setae and dorsocentral setae short, numerous, in complete rows; paratergite bare; *scales on anterior part of antealar area all pale; antepronotum and postpronotum with narrow falcate scales; postspiracular scales present, reduced in male; subspiracular area without or with short setae intermixed with broad scales; prealar area without scales, *upper prealar area with more than 21 setae; mesepimeron with median scale-patch; lower mesepimeral setae absent; femora with knee spots; tibiae and tarsi with basal pale markings (*hindtarsomeres 1 and *2 with basal pale scales); both ungues of all legs toothed in both sexes (*both hindungues of males toothed), fore- and midungues of males unequal; tergum I and laterotergite extensively scaled; terga II‒VII with lateral pale markings, reduced in males, terga II‒V or VI with basal pale bands, terga I‒VII of males with numerous long lateral setae. FEMALE GENITALIA ‒ Segment VIII completely retracted, tergum VIII with setae on distal 0.7 or more, anterior and posterior margins of sternum VIII with deep emargination; cercus long and slender, without setae; upper vaginal sclerite present, lower vaginal sclerite absent; insula long, tongue-like, without setae or tuberculi; 3 spermathecae, unequal. MALE GENITALIA ‒ Short, inconspicuous, deeply retracted; tergum IX comprised of 2 plates separated by median membrane, each plate with conspicuous projecting lobe, *lobes close together; gonocoxite very short and broad, with few broad scales, *setae absent from dorsomesal area of dorsal surface, basal mesal lobe a raised plate with numerous setae, basal dorsomesal lobe not developed, gonostylus attached at apex, with large mesal lobe; gonostylar claw absent; claspette not developed; aedeagus relatively simple, slender, apex sagittate, *denticles present on distal 0.7; paraproct with strongly developed apical claw-like projection, sternal arm absent; cercal setae absent. LARVAE ‒ Antenna long, slender with numerous spicules; seta 1-A multiple branched; seta 4-C inserted mesal and cephalad of setae 5,6-C; setae 5,6-C and 12,13-C approximated, 12,13-C removed from cephalic margin of head; ventromedian cervical sclerite well developed; setae 9‒12-M,T borne on large plate with long stout spine; seta 12-I absent; seta 1-VII short, multiple branched; *setae 1,2-VIII on common setal support plate; seta 3-VII inserted anterior to seta 1-VII; *seta 4-VIII branched; comb scales in irregular patch or double row, with basolateral fringes and long apical spine; siphon relatively long, acus present; pecten of numerous spines, distal spines more widely spaced; seta 1-S distal to pecten, small, multiple branched; saddle complete or incomplete; without acus; caudal margin with short heavy spicules dorsally; seta 1-X single; seta 2-X multiple branched; seta 3-X single or branched, longer than 2-X; ventral brush (seta 4-X) with 5 pairs of setae on poorly developed grid and a number of precratal setae borne on saddle. PUPAE ‒ Trumpet short, tracheoid absent; seta 8-CT cephalad of trumpet; seta 10-CT caudad and mesal or laterad of seta 11-CT; setae 2,3-I moderately to widely separated; seta 9-VII multiple branched, inserted directly cephalad and longer than seta 6-VII; genital lobe of females prominent, long; paddle without marginal fringe of hair-like spicules; seta 1-Pa short. See Aedes.
Belkin (1962) noted that Edwardsaedes bears similarities to subgenera Aedimorphus and Neomelaniconion and genus Verrallina. Based on the cladistic analysis of extensive morphological data by Reinert et al. (2009), Edwardsaedes appears to be related to those generic-level taxa as well as subgenus Aedes ‒ the five groups comprised a clade expressed parenthetically as Neomelaniconion + (Edwardsaedes + (Aedes + (Paraedes + Verrallina))). Edwardsaedes was recovered as the sister to a clade comprised of Neomelaniconion + ((Aedes + (Parades + Verrallina)) in the phylogeny generated by Wilkerson et al. (2015). The only species of Edwardsaedes, Ed. bekkui, included in the maximum likelihood phylogeny of Soghigian et al. (2017) based on seven molecular markers was recovered as the sister of a clade comprised of five species of genus Verrallina.
Species of subgenus Edwardsaedes are known from locations at sea level to 1,200 m. The immature stages usually inhabit shaded temporary pools and flowing water in flooded areas in forest. Eggs are laid individually and require drying for 4‒6 weeks prior to hatching. Larvae mature within three days. Adults have been found resting in houses, stables and on vegetation, and have been captured in light traps. Females viciously attack and bite humans during daytime and are capable of biting through heavy clothing.
Nothing is known of the disease relations of species of subgenus Edwardsaedes, but available evidence suggests they are unlikely to vector pathogens to humans.
Australasian Region (Australia, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands), eastern Palaearctic (China, Japan, Korea, Russia), and Southeast and South-central Asia (Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam).
Belkin, 1962 (taxonomy, distribution, bionomics); Reinert, 1976 (taxonomy, distribution, bionomics); Mogi, 1977 (comparative morphology); Reinert, 2000 (female genitalia); Reinert et al., 2004, 2009 (as genus, morphology, phylogeny); Rattanarithikul et al., 2010 (as genus, Thailand, keys, bionomics); Wilkerson et al., 2015 (phylogeny, classification); Soghigian et al., 2017 (phylogenetic relationships).