Subgenus Dendroskusea Edwards, 1929
Aedes micropterus (Giles, 1901), original combination: Culex micropterus.
Subfamily Culicinae, tribe Aedini, genus Aedes. Subgenus Dendroskusea includes five species. Reinert et al. (2009) resurrected Dendroskusea from synonymy with Diceromyia for a clade comprised of periskelata, micropterus and reginae. Although the clade was diagnosed by a combination of only eight homoplastic characters in the absence of strong support, the three species seemingly comprise a homogeneous group that is clearly unrelated to members of subgenus Diceromyia. Dendroskusea was originally proposed by Edwards (1929) as a subgenus of Aedes for periskelata, micropterus and reginae, and three other nominal species: Aedes iyengari Edwards, Ae. punctipes Edwards and Ae. punctissimus Barraud (a synonym of iyengari), which are now recognized as members of subgenus Petermattinglyius. The immature stages of two nominal species, Ae. kanarensis Edwards and Ae. ramachandrai Reuben, are unknown; they are placed in Dendroskusea based on available information for the adult females (both species) and the male of the latter species. Subgenus abbreviation – Dsk.
Subgenus Dendroskusea is a polythetic taxon that is diagnosed by a unique combination of characters. Species of the subgenus are similar to species of subgenus Diceromyia, but should be distinguishable from species of that subgenus by the following combination of characters. Characters that define the Dendroskusea clade in the phylogenetic analysis of Reinert et al. (2009) are indicated with an asterisk (*). ADULTS – Vertex with pair of whitish scale-patches; proboscis not longer than forefemur; antenna of males with setae of flagellar whorls directed mainly dorsally and ventrally; maxillary palpus of males as long as proboscis, palpomeres 4 and 5 short and *turned downwards; scutal setae very strongly developed, posterior acrostichal setae present or absent, usually present; 1 or 2 lower mesepimeral setae present in both sexes (except Ae. periskelatus); pale scales present on paratergite; ungues of females all simple, ungues of males toothed; wing with broad scales on anterior veins. FEMALE GENITALIA – *Sternum VIII with seta 2-S inserted lateral and on or near same level as seta 1-S; cerci short and broad; 3 spermathecal capsules present. MALE GENITALIA – Tergum IX small; gonocoxite without definite lobes; *gonostylus without setae on distal third, with single short apical or preapical gonostylar claw; *gonostylus/gonocoxite index usually ≥ 0.73, sometimes 0.42–0.71; aedeagus divided into 2 lateral plates, each bearing conspicuous teeth; proctiger with well-developed paraprocts; cercal setae absent. LARVAE – Seta 4-C usually inserted at same level but sometimes anterior to seta 6-C; *seta 4-P branched, *as long as or shorter than seta 3-P; seta 3-VII usually single. PUPAE – *Seta 2-V inserted posterior or directly mesal to seta 3-V; *seta 9-VIII inserted slightly anterior or mesal to posterolateral corner of segment; *seta 9-VIII single or double. See Aedes.
The relationships of subgenus Dendroskusea are uncertain. The subgenus was placed in a large clade in the phylogeny of Aedini reconstructed by Reinert et al. (2009). The first group of the clade to branch off comprised Skusea + (Indusius + Cancraedes), followed by Fredwardsius, Isoaedes and Borichinda on separate branches, and then Diceromyia + Ayurakitia, Dendroskusea and Scutomyia + (Catatassomyia + Bothaella). In the phylogeny generated by Wilkerson et al. (2015), Dendroskusea was placed within a polytomy that included subgenera Ayurakitia, Belkinius, Borichinda, Bothaella, Catatassomyia, Cornetius, Diceromyia, Isoaedes, Petermattinglyius, Pseudarmigeres, Scutomyia and Stegomyia, as well as genera Heizmannia, Udaya and Zeugnomyia.
The immature stages of Ae. kanarensis and Ae. ramachandrai are unknown;larvae of the other three members of the genus have only been found in tree holes. Females of Ae. ramachandrai were collected in forest in all seasons of the year, either in vegetation or coming to feed on humans (Reuben, 1967). Nothing else is known about the bionomics of Dendroskusea species.
Species of subgenus Dendroskusea are not known to be of medical or economic importance to humans.
Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
Reinert et al., 2009 (as genus, morphology, phylogeny); Wilkerson et al., 2015 (phylogeny, classification).
kanarensis Edwards, 1934 (in Barraud, 1934) micropterus (Giles, 1901) periskelatus (Giles, 1902) ramachandrai Reuben, 1967 reginae Edwards, 1922