Subgenus Heizmannia Ludlow, 1905
Heizmannia scintillans Ludlow, 1905.
Subfamily Culicinae, genus Heizmannia. Subgenus Heizmannia includes 34 species. Subgenus abbreviation – Hez.
Species of subgenus Heizmannia are distinguished from species of subgenus Mattinglyia as follows. ADULTS – Antenna of males not strongly verticillate; antepronota nearly contiguous; mesopostnotal setae and sometimes scales present; lower mesepimeral seta absent; fore- and midungues of females of most species simple, without teeth. FEMALE GENITALIA – Sternum VIII with seta 1-S inserted some distance from anterior margin; tergum IX represented by 2 lateral plates separated by membrane; insula with setae. MALE GENITALIA – Gonocoxite with well-developed subapical lobe bearing 1 or 2 stout setae. LARVAE – Maxillary brush normal, comprised of separate filaments. PUPAE – Generally not separable from pupae of subgenus Mattinglyia. See genus Heizmannia.
Subgenus Heizmannia was found to be monophyletic in the phylogenetic studies of Reinert et al. (2004, 2009), in a derived relationship relative to the paraphyletic subgenus Mattinglyia.
The immature stages of species of subgenus Heizmannia are found primarily in tree holes and split, cut and bored bamboo, but also occur in other types of container habitats and sometimes in ground water and crab holes. Adults of most species are known to readily attack and bite humans in shaded forest habitats.
As far as known, species of subgenus Heizmannia are not of medical importance to humans.
Species of the subgenus are distributed mainly in the Oriental Region, with a few species recorded from southeastern areas of the Palaearctic Region (Chin, Japan, South Korea). Heizmannia aurea is only species known from the Australasian Region (Halmahera, largest island of the Maluku Islands [Moluccas], Indonesia.
Mattingly, 1970 (revision); Tanaka et al., 1979 (Japan); Lee et al., 1988 (Australasian Region); Reinert, 2002 (female genitalia); Reinert et al., 2004, 2009 (morphology, phylogeny); Rattanarithikul et al., 2010 (Thailand, keys, bionomics).
aurea Brug, 1932
aureochaeta (Leicester, 1908)
carteri Amerasinghe, 1993
chandi Edwards, 1922
chengi Lien, 1968
communis (Leicester, 1908)
complex (Theobald, 1910)
covelli Barraud, 1929
demeilloni Mattingly, 1970
funerea (Leicester, 1908)
greenii (Theobald, 1905)
heterospina Gong & Lu, 1986
himalayensis Edwards, 1922
indica (Theobald, 1905)
kana Tanaka, Mizusawa & Saugstad, 1979
kanhsienensis Tung, 1955
lii Wu, 1936
macdonaldi Mattingly, 1957
mattinglyi Thurman, 1959
maximalepido Dong, Zhou & Dong, 2005
menglianensis Lu & Gong, 1986
menglianeroides Dong, Dong & Zhou, 2003 (in Dong et al., 2003)
persimilis Mattingly, 1970
propinqua Mattingly, 1970
proxima Mattingly, 1970
rajagopalani Natarajan, Eapen & Jambulingam, 2020
reidi Mattingly, 1957
ruiliensis Dong, Zhou & Wang, 1997 (in Dong et al., 1997)
scanloni Mattingly, 1970
scintillans Ludlow, 1905
taiwanensis Lien, 1968
tengchongensis Dong, Wang & Zhou, 2002
thelmae Mattingly, 1970
viridis Barraud, 1929