Genus Heizmannia Ludlow, 1905
Heizmannia scintillans Ludlow, 1905.
Subfamily Culicinae, tribe Aedini. Heizmannia includes 40 species. Thirty-four species belong to subgenus Heizmannia and six are included in subgenus Mattinglyia. Genus abbreviation – Hz.
Heizmannia are similar to Haemagogus in the New World. Adults are brightly coloured mosquitoes reminiscent of some sabethines. Many species have broad iridescent scales on the scutum, and species of subgenus Heizmannia have a small patch of setae on the mesopostnotum. The genus shares many of the characteristics found in species of other aedine genera in the Oriental Region, but is separable from these by the presence of one or more or various combinations of the following characters: erect scales restricted to back of head, occasionally absent; acrostichal setae and dorsocentral setae absent; prespiracular setae absent; postspiracular setae usually absent; upper mesokatepisternal setae absent; lower mesepimeral setae present; subspiracular area, postspiracular area, paratergite and laterotergite all with scales; upper calypter of wing with a fringe of setae, alula with broad flat scales on dorsal margin, anal vein (vein 1A) ending beyond base of mediocubital crossvein; tarsi normal, pulvilli not evident. The essential features distinguishing Heizmannia larvae from larvae of other genera include the following: hypostomal suture complete to posterior tentorial pit, maxilla with typical maxillary brush (subgenus Heizmannia) or a maxillalry bundle of coalesced filaments (subgenus Mattinglyia), seta 12-I absent, comb and pecten present, single pair of seta 1-S inserted well above base of siphon, saddle incomplete ventrally, ventral brush (seta 4-X) usually with four pairs of setae. Some larvae of other aedine genera closely resemble Heizmannia but usually differ in having setae 4,7-C small with few branches. If these setae are large with many branches as in Heizmannia, then seta 6-C is posterior to seta 4-C and/or it does not have two unequal branches. See Aedini.
Heizmannia was recovered in a clade comprising Petermattinglyius + (Alanstonea + Pseudarmigeres) + Heizmannia)) in the phylogenetic study of Reinert et al. (2009) based on morphological data, and this clade was sister to a clade comprising Lorrainea + (((Udaya + (Belkinius + Zeugnomyia)) + (Eretmapodites + Armigeres)). Within Heizmannia, subgenus Mattinglyia was paraphyletic relative to subgenus Heizmannia. Heizmannia and Pseudarmigeres seem to be very closely related, although Alanstonea is included as the sister of the latter genus. Heizmannia and Pseudarmigeres were recovered as sister taxa in the phylogeny of Wilkerson et al., (2015). Heizmannia was not recovered as a monophyletic lineage in the maximum likelihood phylogeny of Soghigian et al. (2017) based on seven molecular markers. The Heizmannia clade included Udaya subsimilis as the sister of Hz. discrepans. It is possible, however, that the former species was misidentified as a species of Heizmannia.
Heizmannia larvae are found mainly in tree holes and bamboo, but some species are occasionally found in small ground pools and one species has been collected from split coconuts and artificial containers. Little is known about the bionomics of the adults. They are apparently active during the daytime in forests where females readily attack humans.
Heizmannia females bite humans, but none of the species are known to vector disease agents.
Heizmannia species occur mainly in the Oriental Region. A few species occur in southeastern areas of the Palaearctic Region (China, Japan and South Korea). One species, Hz. aurea of subgenus Heizmannia, is known only from its type locality in the Australasian Region (Halmahera, Maluku Islands [Moluccas] Indonesia).
Barraud, 1934 (southern Asia); Mattingly, 1957 (Indomalayan area, review); Thurman, 1959 (Thailand); Delfinado, 1966 (Philippines); Mattingly, 1970 (revision); Reinert, 1973 (taxonomy); Tanaka et al., 1979 (Japan); Lee et al., 1988 (Australasian Region); Reinert, 2002 (female genitalia); Reinert et al., 2004, 2009 (morphology, phylogeny); Rattanarithikul et al., 2010 (Thailand, keys, bionomics); Wilkerson et al., 2015 (phylogeny); Soghigian et al., 2017 (phylogenetic relationships).