Revision of Genus Uranotaenia Lynch Arribálzaga, 1891 from Thu, 2013-11-21 11:21

Type species: 

Uranotaenia pulcherrima Lynch Arribálzaga, 1891.

Classification: 

Subfamily Culicinae, tribe Uranotaeniini. Uranotaenia is the only genus of tribe Uranotaeniini. It includes 267 species grouped into two subgenera, Pseudoficalbia with 146 species and Uranotaenia with 121 species.

Characteristics: 

Uranotaenia are small, delicate mosquitoes that are characterised by features of the wings. The microtrichia are extremely minute and not visible under ordinary magnification, cell R2 is always shorter than vein R2+3 and cell M2, and the anal vein is sharply curved distally and ends before the base of the mediocubital crossvein. Some species are adorned with silver scales with bluish reflections. Larvae are recognised by the following characters: seta 1-C arises from a distinct process on the anterior margin of the head, seta 14-C is always near the anterior margin at the base of the maxilla, the hypostomal suture is absent, abdominal segment VIII usually bears a sclerite (comb plate) with a single row of comb scales on its posterior margin, the siphon has a single pair of seta 1-S inserted well above the base and a pecten is present that consists of few to many spines. See Uranotaeniini.

Bionomics and disease relations: 

The immature stages of Uranotaenia utilise a range of habitats. The larvae of most species inhabit ground waters, including swamps, marshes, stream margins and temporary pools with vegetation, but many also utilise rock holes, crab holes, tree holes, bamboo, plant parts on the ground, leaf axils, flower bracts, pitcher plants and artificial containers. Females rarely feed on humans. The feeding preferences of most species are unknown, but available data indicate that amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals serve as hosts. Adults rest on moist, protected surfaces near the larval habitats and may be found in large numbers in suitable shelters. Many species are attracted to light and are occasionally found resting inside houses.

Distribution: 

Most species of Uranotaenia occur in the Afrotropical and Oriental Regions, but several occur in Australia, one in Europe and the Middle East, two extend from the Neotropical Region into the southern USA, and one occurs in the West Indies and from Mexico to Canada. No species are known from New Zealand, New Caledonia or small oceanic islands.

Principal references: 

Barraud, 1934 (southern Asia); Edwards, 1941 (adults, Afrotropical Region); Hopkins, 1952 (larvae, Afrotropical Region); Lane, 1953 (Neotropical Region); Galindo et al., 1954 (Panama); Belkin, 1962 (taxonomy, South Pacific); Delfinado, 1966 (Philippines); Belkin et al., 1970 (Jamaica); Peyton, 1977 (subgenus Pseudoficalbia, Southeast Asia); Tanaka et al., 1979 (Japan); Clark-Gil & Darsie, 1983 (Guatemala); Darsie, 1985 (keys, Argentina); Lee et al., 1989 (Australasian Region); Darsie & Pradhan, 1990 (Nepal); Service, 1990 (Afrotropical Region); da Cunha Ramos, 1993 (Afrotropical Region); Rattanarithikul et al., 2006 (Thailand, keys) .

Species: 

Subgenus Pseudoficalbia Theobald, 1912
   abdita Peyton, 1977
   abstrusa Peyton, 1977
   albimanus da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   albinotata da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   albipes Peyton, 1977
   ambodimanga da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   andreae Doucet, 1962
   anhydor Dyar, 1907
      subspecies anhydor Dyar, 1907
      subspecies syntheta Dyar & Shannon, 1924
   annulata Theobald, 1901
   antalahaensis da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   apicosquamata da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   apicotaeniata Theobald, 1909
   approximata Peyton, 1977
   ascidiicola de Meijere, 1910
   atra Theobald, 1905
   bambusicola da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   belkini Grjebine, 1979
   bicincta da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   bicolor Leicester, 1908
   bifasciata da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   bimaculata Leicester, 1908
   bosseri Grjebine, 1979
   boussesi da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   breviseta da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   browni Mattingly, 1955
   brumpti Doucet, 1951
   brunhesi Grjebine, 1979
   cachani (Doucet, 1950)
   capelai da Cunha Ramos, 1993
   carcinicola da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   cavernicola Mattingly, 1954
   colocasiae Edwards, 1928
   combesi Doucet, 1950)
   comorensis da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   confusa Peyton, 1977
   contrastata da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   cornuta da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   damasei Grjebine, 1979
   demeilloni Peyton & Rattanarithikul, 1970
   devemyi Hamon, 1955
   diagonalis Brug, 1934
   dibrugarhensis Bhattacharyya, Prakash, Mohapatra & Mahanta, 2004
   donai da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   douceti Grjebine, 1953
   enigmatica Peyton, 1977
   fulgens da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   fusca Theobald, 1907
   garnhami van Someren, 1948
   gigantea Brug, 1931
   gouldi Peyton & Klein, 1970
   grenieri Doucet, 1951
   grjebinei da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   haddowi da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   harrisoni Peyton, 1977
   henrardi Edwards, 1935
   henriquei da Cunha Ramos, 1993
   hervyi da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   hirsuta Boussès & Brunhes, 2013
   hirsutifemora Peters, 1964
   hongayi Galliard & Ngu, 1947
   husaini Qutubuddin, 1947
   jacksoni Edwards, 1935
   jinhongensis Dong, Dong & Zhou, 2003
   koli Peyton & Klein, 1970
   kraussi Grjebine, 1953
   laffosseae da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   lavieri Doucet, 1950
   legoffi da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   leiboensis Chu, 1981
   longitubus da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   lousthei Boussès & Brunhes, 2013
   lucyae van Someren, 1954
   lui Lien, 1968
   lunda da Cunha Ramos, 1993
   luteola Edwards, 1934
   lutescens Leicester, 1908
   maculipleura Leicester, 1908
   madagascarensis da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   manakaraensis da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   mashonaensis Theobald, 1901
   mattinglyi Qutubuddin, 1951
   maxima Leicester, 1908
   mengi Chen, Wang & Zhao, 1989
   micromelas Edwards, 1934
   modesta Leicester, 1908
   montana Ingram & de Meillon, 1927
   moufiedi Peyton, 1977
   moultoni Edwards, 1914
   musarum Edwards, 1936
   nepenthes (Theobald, 1912)
   nigricephala da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   nigripes (Theobald, 1905)
   nigripleura da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   nigromaculata Edwards, 1941
   nivipleura Leicester, 1908
   nivipous Theobald, 1912
   nocticola Peyton, 1977
   novobscura Barraud, 1934
      subspecies novobscura Barraud, 1934
      subspecies ryukyuana Tanaka, Mizusawa & Saugstad, 1979
   obscura Edwards, 1915
   ohamai Tanaka, Mizusawa & Saugstad, 1975
   ornata Theobald, 1909
   ototomo da Cunha Ramos, 1993
   painei Edwards, 1935
   pallidipleura da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   pandani (Theobald, 1912)
   patriciae Peyton, 1977
   pauliani Doucet, 1949
   pilosa da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   principensis da Cunha Ramos, 1993
   propinqua Peyton, 1977
   pseudoalbimanus da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   pseudohenrardi Peters, 1955
   pseudomaculipleura Peyton & Rattanarithikul, 1970
   pseudoshillitonis da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   pylei Baisas, 1946
   quadrimaculata Edwards, 1929
   quasimodesta Peyton, 1977
   qui Dong, Dong & Zhou, 2003
   quinquemaculata Bonne-Wepster, 1934
   ramosa da Cunha Ramos, 1993
   ravenalaphila Boussès & Brunhes, 2013
   ravenalicola da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   recondita Edwards, 1922
   reinerti Peyton, 1977
   rickenbachi da Cunha Ramos, 1993
   rossi Delfinado, 1966
   scutostriata da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   shillitonis Edwards, 1932
   signata da Cunha Ramos, 1993
   spiculosa Peyton & Rattanarithikul, 1970
   spinitubus da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   spinosa da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   spiraculata da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   srilankensis Peyton, 1974
   stricklandi Barraud, 1926
   sumethi Peyton & Rattanarithikul, 1970
   tanakai Miyagi & Toma, 2013
tanzaniae da Cunha Ramos, 1993
   tricolor da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   tridentata da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   tsaratananae Doucet, 1950
   ugandae da Cunha Ramos, 1993
   unguiculata Edwards, 1913
      subspecies pefflyi Stone, 1961
      subspecies unguiculata Edwards, 1913
   xanthomelaena Edwards, 1925
   yaeyamana Tanaka, Mizusawa & Saugstad, 1975
   yovani van Someren, 1951
Subgenus Uranotaenia Lynch Arribálzaga
   aequatorianna Levi-Castillo, 1953
   alba Theobald, 1901
   albescens Taylor, 1914
   alboabdominalis Theobald, 1910
   alboannulata (Theobald, 1905)
   albocephala da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   albosternopleura Peters, 1963
   amiensis Peters, 1963
   andavakae Doucet, 1950
   angolensis da Cunha Ramos, 1985
   annandalei Barraud, 1926
   anopheloides Brunhes & Razafindrasolo, 1975
   antennalis Taylor, 1919
   apicalis Theobald, 1903
   argentipleura da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   arguellesi Baisas, 1935
   argyrotarsis Leicester, 1908
   balfouri Theobald, 1904
   barnesi Belkin, 1953
   benoiti Wolfs, 1964
   bertii Cova García & Rausseo, 1964
   bidentata da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   bilineata Theobald, 1909
   bimaculiala Leicester, 1908
   bricenoi Cova García, Pulido, Escalante de Ugueto, Amarista & Mora, 1987
   briseis Dyar, 1925
   caeruleocephala Theobald, 1901
   caliginosa Philip, 1931
   calosomata Dyar & Knab, 1907
   campestris Leicester, 1908
   chorleyi Edwards, 1936
   christophersi Barraud, 1926
   civinskii Belkin, 1953
   clara Dyar & Shannon, 1925
   coatzacoalcos Dyar & Knab, 1906
   connali Edwards, 1912
   cooki Root, 1937
   davisi Lane, 1943
   diraphati Peyton & Klein, 1970
   ditaenionota Prado, 1931
   dumonti Doucet, 1949
   edwardsi Barraud, 1926
   falcipes Banks, 1906
   fimbriata King & Hoogstraal, 1947
   fraseri Edwards, 1912
   gabaldoni Cova García, Pulido F., Escalante de Ugueto & Mora R., 1987
   geniculata da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   geometrica Theobald, 1901
   gerdae Slooff, 1963
   grassei da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   hamoni Grjebine, 1953
   hebes Barraud, 1931
   hebrardi da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   heiseri Baisas, 1935
   hopkinsi Edwards, 1932
   hystera Dyar & Knab, 1913
   incognita Galindo, Blanton & Peyton, 1954
   iriartei Cova García, Pulido F., Escalante de Ugueto & Mora R., 1987
   joucouri da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   lanei Martinez & Prosen, 1953
   lateralis Ludlow, 1905
   lebiedi da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   leucoptera (Theobald, 1907)
   longirostris Leicester, 1908
   lowii Theobald, 1901
   ludlowae Dyar & Shannon, 1925
   macfarlanei Edwards, 1914
   machadoi da Cunha Ramos, 1986
   madagascarica da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   mathesoni Lane, 1943
   mayeri Edwards, 1912
   mayottensis Brunhes, 1977
   mendiolai Baisas, 1935
   metatarsata Edwards, 1914
   micans Leicester, 1908
   moramangae da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   moresbyensis Peters, 1963
   nataliae Lynch Arribálzaga, 1891
   neireti Edwards, 1920
   neotibialis King & Hoogstraal, 1947
   nivea Leicester, 1908
   nivipes (Theobald, 1905)
   novaguinensis Peters, 1963
   orientalis Barraud, 1926
   orthodoxa Dyar, 1921
   oteizai Perez Vigueras, 1956
   pallidocephala Theobald, 1908
   pallidoventer Theobald, 1903
   palmeirimi de Meillon & Rebêlo, 1941
      subspecies dundo da Cunha Ramos, 1993
      subspecies palmeirimi de Meillon & Rebêlo, 1941
   paludosa Galindo, Blanton & Peyton, 1954
   paralateralis Peters, 1964
   paranovaguinensis Peters, 1963
   philonuxia Philip, 1931
   pifanoi Cova Garcia, Pulido F. & Escalante de Ugueto, 1981
   prajimi Peyton & Rattanarithikul, 1970
   pulcherrima Lynch Arribálzaga, 1891
   pygmaea Theobald, 1901
   rachoui Xavier, da Silva Mattos & da Silva, 1970
   rampae Peyton & Klein, 1970
   reyi Baisas, 1935
   riverai Duret, 1970
   roberti da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
   rutherfordi Edwards, 1922
   sapphirina (Osten Sacken, 1868)
   setosa King & Hoogstraal, 1947
   sexaueri Belkin, 1953
   socialis Theobald, 1901
   solomonis Belkin, 1953
   sombooni Peyton & Klein, 1970
   subnormalis Martini, 1920
   subtibioclada King & Hoogstraal, 1947
   telmatophila Galindo, Blanton & Peyton, 1954
   testacea Theobald, 1905
   tibialis Taylor, 1919
   tibioclada King & Hoogstraal, 1947
   trapidoi Galindo, Blanton & Peyton, 1954
   trilineata Leicester, 1908
   typhlosomata Dyar & Knab, 1907
   unimaculiala Leicester, 1908
   wysockii Belkin, 1953
   yunnanensis Dong, Dong & Wu, 2004

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith